Intro to Reflexology

Are you struggling with pain, anxiety, or chronic stress? According to the fundamental tenets of reflexology, it’s possible to treat any of those problems by manipulating pressure points on your hands, ears, and feet. Some people have even reported experiencing improved digestion, immune response, and fertility after trying reflexology.

Reflexology traces its roots back to acupressure. In this system, it is believed that applying pressure to specific areas of the feet, hands, and ears can improve the body’s own ability to heal interconnected body parts associated with those points.

Origins of Reflexology

Foot massage techniques designed to improve overall health arose over three thousand years ago in what is currently known as India and China. However, some basic forms of foot massage probably existed long before that. By 2500 BCE, Chinese physicians had divided the human body into zones, using longitudinal meridians, which informed how they treated patients. The Classic of Medicine, attributed to the possibly mythical “Yellow Emperor” Huangdi, is one of the earliest extant medical texts to describe acupressure, a fundamental tenet of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that would later form the basis of reflexology. Although reflexology and TCM are separate practices, reflexology relies on bodily meridians and energy flow theories based on Chinese medicine practices.

Over time, reflexology emerged in other cultures, including Ancient Egypt, via parallel evolution or cultural exchange. Reflexology was brought to the contemporary United States by Eunice Ingham, a physiotherapist who popularized reflexology for Western audiences during the twentieth century.

Summary of Reflexology: What is Reflexology?

Reflexology is a complementary or “alternative” medicine practice that manipulates acupressure points on the feet, ears, and hands to heal medical problems elsewhere in the body. It can be used to treat a variety of conditions. While most available evidence shows that reflexology can reduce stress, anxiety, and pain, people who have experienced it have also reported that their fertility, digestion, or immune response also improved or even that their cancer went into remission.

The fundamental idea behind reflexology is that specific points on the feet, hands, or ears correspond to organs or glands in the rest of the body. Therefore, applying pressure to a point can stimulate healing in other areas to which it is connected. Reflexology practitioners encourage the body to heal itself by massaging the feet, hands, or ears, targeting points that are believed to be related to various health problems. Rather than entering the body invasively, as a drug would, reflexology stimulates your body to heal itself.

No study has yet established the underlying principles by which reflexology functions, although several possible explanations exist.

  • Qi (pronounced “chee”): According to the ancient Chinese physicians who developed acupressure, physical and emotional problems arise when a person’s qi, or life energy, becomes blocked. Massaging pressure points can restore the healthy flow of qi, thereby healing illness.
  • Zone theory: One U.S.-based doctor, Dr. William Fitzgerald, suggested that the human body is divided into ten vertical slices or “zones.” Touching any body part in one of those zones, he argued, allows reflexology practitioners to heal any other body part in the same zone.
  • Nervous system: The nervous system responds to touch, and it connects the internal organs to the skin. If you are comfortable with physical contact, reflexology may soothe your nervous system because it involves touch, which can heal your internal organs via stimulating interconnected parts of the nervous system.
  • Circulation: Some researchers have posited that reflexology improves blood flow to the areas it treats, which improves the body’s ability to heal itself.

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Research & Science Supporting Reflexology

Thus far, relatively few studies have clinically evaluated reflexology’s effectiveness, and most of them have been too small to produce generalizable results. A few studies are noteworthy, however.

A recent meta-analysis of 26 studies, published in 2020, showed that foot reflexology significantly reduced anxiety and depression and improved sleep quality among adults.

A small study investigating the effects of reflexology on PMS symptoms was published in 1993. Researchers separated 35 people who had experienced PMS symptoms into two groups: one group underwent two months of foot, hand, or ear reflexology; during the same period of time, the other group received a placebo treatment that mimicked reflexology. The group that received actual reflexology treatment showed a significantly more significant decrease in PMS symptoms than the control group. However, a sample consisting of 35 people is relatively small and may not adequately represent the larger population. Further research is warranted.

Another study, published in 2000, showed that foot reflexology significantly reduced anxiety among 23 breast and lung cancer patients. This study also evaluated reflexology’s effect on pain, but those results were more ambiguous. Some patients experienced a decrease in pain, but only according to one out of three pain measures. Since this was a small study, one should exercise caution when drawing general conclusions based on its results.

On the other hand, a 2014 review of 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of reflexology concluded that the overall quality of existing research into reflexology was low. Furthermore, most of the studies this group analyzed revealed no significant differences between the positive effects of reflexology and positive changes that members of a sham treatment group experienced. 

Potential Drawbacks/Criticisms

People with certain health conditions should avoid reflexology. For example, you shouldn’t receive reflexology treatment on body parts that are injured or strained. For example, if you have gout or a broken toe, foot reflexology won’t be a good fit for you. People who have blood clotting issues should also avoid reflexology because it improves circulation, and increased blood flow could knock a clot out of place and move it toward your heart or brain.

If you choose to pursue reflexology while pregnant, your practitioner will modify your treatment compared to that of individuals who aren’t pregnant to avoid or reduce pressure to the uterine and ovarian points. Some people have reported that reflexology can induce contractions, so proceed with caution.

Although some people have reported success using reflexology to treat core issues that they believed were causing their cancer (e.g., anxiety or anger), no formal research has substantiated these claims. Some studies have concluded that reflexology eases anxiety and physical pain, but in the absence of substantive research supporting that reflexology can heal life-threatening issues (either directly or, as some cancer survivors have claimed, by treating underlying psychophysiological issues such as anxiety), it makes sense to view reflexology as a complement to other methods of treatment.

Finally, little research about reflexology exists. Therefore, if you feel more comfortable relying on methods of treatment that Western science has extensively supported, you may wish to hold off on reflexology treatment, at least until and unless more research proves that it produces positive results.

The Seeker Experience

If you choose to explore reflexology with a guide, your first session will probably be divided into three sections: intake, treatment, and closing.

During intake, the practitioner will ask about your health history to determine whether reflexology is a good fit for you. Then, they will explain how reflexology works and set expectations. Some may ask you to sign consent and other legal forms.

At the beginning of treatment, the practitioner will assess your feet, ears, or hands so they know how to best prepare for your sessions (e.g., if you have a cut on your foot, they will know to wear gloves and avoid pressing on the open wound). If you’re exploring foot reflexology, your practitioner may wash and soak your feet before beginning treatment. During treatment, which usually lasts from thirty minutes to one hour, the practitioner will apply pressure to various pressure points on your body. Depending on what makes you feel most comfortable, you may talk or relax during this time.

At the end of treatment, your practitioner will probably gently transition out of the session by holding or stroking your foot, ear, or hand.

During a reflexology treatment, you may react physically or emotionally in unexpected ways. For example, you may cry, laugh, fall asleep, feel cold, thirsty, light-headed, or cough. Some people feel more relaxed, some feel pain, and some might notice that their hands or feet start to sweat. All of these reactions are normal, and it’s likely that however your body responds, your practitioner has probably seen it before.

In the hours or even days following treatment, patients often feel better but may feel tired, cry (indicating an emotional release), or even have diarrhea as their system releases toxins. If any of these symptoms manifest for you, be gentle with yourself.

Note that your reflexology practitioner will never make a diagnosis unless they are also a doctor acting in that capacity. Reflexology does not diagnose illnesses and cannot substitute for types of treatment that do.

Finding a Guide & Guide Perspectives

As always, the most important question to ask yourself before choosing a guide is, “Do I feel comfortable with this person?” You deserve to work with someone with whom you feel safe and have a good rapport. The best practitioners encourage questions and answer them openly and readily.

People in many different professions use reflexology. Some doctors and nurses use it to supplement more conventional Western medical treatments, whereas some practitioners exclusively practice reflexology. Unless your reflexology practitioner is also a doctor, they shouldn’t diagnose you with anything.

Although no license is required to practice reflexology, certifications are available. For example, the International Institute of Reflexology teaches a variant based on Eunice Ingham’s work. Different organizations teach different styles of reflexology, but the basic principles remain the same.

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Works Cited

History of reflexology. [online] Reflexology Therapy and Reflexology Massage. Available at: <> [Accessed 27 February 2021].

The history of reflexology. [online] International Institute of Reflexology. Available at: <> [Accessed 27 February 2021].

Ni M. The Yellow Emperor’s classic of medicine: a new translation of the Neijing Suwen with commentary. Shambhala Publications; 1995.

Fan KW. Foot massage in Chinese medical history. ACM. 2006 February 22; 12(1): 1. Available at: <> [Accessed 27 February 2021].

Cirino E. Reflexology 101. [online] Healthline. Available at: <> [Accessed 27 February 2021].

McCullough JEM, Liddle SD, Sinclair M, Close C, Hughes CM. The physiological and biochemical outcomes associated with reflexology treatment: a systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014 5 May; 2014. Available at: <>.

Wang WL, Hung HY, Chen YR, Chen KH, Yang SN, Chu CM, Chan YY. Effect of foot reflexology intervention on depression, anxiety, and sleep quality in adults: a meta-analysis and metaregression of randomized controlled trials. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020 15 September; 2020. Available at: <>.

Oleson T, Flocco W. Randomized controlled study of premenstrual symptoms treated with ear, hand, and foot reflexology. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1993 December; 82(6): 906-911. Available at: <>.

Stephenson NL, Weinrich SP, Tavakoli AS. The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2000 February; 27(1): 67-72. Available at: <>.

Teagarden K. What can I expect in a first reflexology visit? [online] University of Minnesota. Available at: <> [Accessed 27 February 2021].

Teagarden K. Are there times when I shouldn’t have reflexology? [online] University of Minnesota. Available at: <> [Accessed 27 February 2021].

Ritz DD. The life story of Louise Hay and how she healed from cancer. [online] Treasure Tapping. Available at: <> [Accessed 27 February 2021].

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